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This site is used to create effective interaction regarding M Ed association. This will also helps to publicize the various events of NSS T...

Monday, 14 October 2019

മനോഹരമായ ഒരു സന്ദേശം...

*മാതൃകാ അദ്ധ്യാപിക*   

യാദൃച്ഛികമായാണ് ഗീത ടീച്ചറെ തുണിക്കടയിൽ കണ്ടുമുട്ടിയത്.  കുറേ കാലത്തിനു ശേഷമാണ് ഞാൻ ടീച്ചറെ കാണുന്നത്. ടീച്ചർക്ക് എന്നെ ഓർമ്മയുണ്ടായിരിക്കാൻ വഴിയില്ലാ.  വയസ്സ് 80 കഴിഞ്ഞു കാണും.  ചെറിയ ഒരു വളവ്... മുടി നരച്ചെങ്കിലും നീളം ഒട്ടും കുറഞ്ഞിട്ടില്ല. കണ്ണട വെച്ചിട്ടും മുഖശ്രീ  ഒട്ടും മങ്ങീട്ടില്ലാ.  മിണ്ടാതെ പോയാലോ എന്നാ ആദ്യം കരുതിയെ.  ടീച്ചർ എങ്ങാനും ആ വാച്ച് മോഷണ കഥ ഓർത്തെടുത്താൽ..... ഛേ !! വല്ലാത്ത  നാണക്കേടാവും.  എന്റെ കൂടെ ഭാര്യയും ഉണ്ട്.  അവളെങ്ങാനും എന്റെ പൂർവ്വചരിത്രം അറിഞ്ഞാൽ....  ടീച്ചറെ ഒഴിവാക്കുന്നത് തന്നെ ബുദ്ധി. 

എന്നാലും,  ഗീത ടീച്ചർ (സ്പ്രിങ്) അന്ന് ആ കാര്യം ആ രീതിയിൽ കൈകാര്യം ചെയ്തത് കൊണ്ടല്ലേ ഞാൻ വലിയ നാണക്കേടിൽ നിന്നും രക്ഷപ്പെട്ടത്? എഴുത്തച്ഛൻ (പാഷാണം) മാഷോ കരുണാകരൻ (ക്രൂരൻ ) മാഷോ ശ്രീദേവി (മൂദേവി ) ടീച്ചറോ മറ്റോ ആയിരുന്നെങ്കിൽ ഞാൻ ആത്മഹത്യ ചെയ്യേണ്ടി വന്നേനേ .  

ഗീത ടീച്ചറെ ഒഴിവാക്കി പോകാൻ മനസാക്ഷി അനുവദിച്ചില്ലാ.  ഇനി ടീച്ചർ ആ കഥ പറഞ്ഞാലും,  പഴയതല്ലേ എന്ന് പറഞ്ഞ് ചിരിച്ചു തള്ളാമല്ലോ.  80 ന് മീതെ വയസ്സുകാണും .  അതിനനുസരിച്ചുള്ള ഓർമക്കുറവും  കാണും .  ഇനി കാണാൻ ഒരു അവസരം കിട്ടീല്ലെങ്കിലോ?  ഞാനും ഇന്ന് ഒരു അദ്ധ്യാപകനാണല്ലോ. അതും രാഷ്ട്രപതിയുടെ അവാർഡ് നേടിയ മാതൃകാ അദ്ധ്യാപകൻ. 

ധൈര്യം സംഭരിച്ചു ടീച്ചറുടെ അടുത്തേക്ക് നടന്നു.  

നമസ്കാരം ടീച്ചർ . 

നമസ്കാരം 

എന്നെ മനസ്സിലായോ? 

ഒന്ന് ശ്രദ്ധിച്ചുനോക്കി.  

ഇല്ലാ.  ഞാൻ പഠിപ്പിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ടോ? 

ഉവ്വ്.  ടീച്ചർ 10ആം ക്ലാസ്സിൽ എന്റെ ക്ലാസ്സ്‌ ടീച്ചർ ആയിരുന്നു.  ഹിന്ദി പഠിപ്പിച്ചിട്ടും ഉണ്ട്. 

ഓർമ കിട്ടുന്നില്ലാ.  എന്താ പേര്? 

ബാലൻ.  ബാലകൃഷ്ണൻ. 

ഓ.  എന്ത് ചെയ്യുന്നു? 

 സ്കൂൾ അദ്ധ്യാപകനാണ്.  

നന്നായി. എന്താ ഈ ജോലി തിരഞ്ഞെടുത്തെ? 

ടീച്ചറെ പോലെ ആകണം എന്ന മോഹം കൊണ്ടാ. 

ഹ ഹ ഹ.... അതെന്താണാവോ എനിക്ക് ഇത്ര പ്രത്യേകത? 

ടീച്ചർ,  ഒരിക്കൽ ക്ലാസ്സിൽ ഒരു  കൃഷ്ണകുമാറിന്റെ  വില കൂടിയ വാച്ച് കളവ് പോയ കഥ ഓർക്കുന്നുണ്ടോ? 

ഒരു മിനിറ്റ് ആലോചിച്ച ശേഷം ടീച്ചർ പറഞ്ഞു... 

ചെറുതായ ഓർമയുണ്ട്.  ആ കുട്ടി ഗേൾസ് സ്കൂളിലെ ലീല ടീച്ചറുടെ മോനല്ലേ? 

അതേ ടീച്ചർ... 

കൃഷ്ണകുമാറിന്റെ അച്ഛൻ ദുബായിൽ നിന്നും കൊണ്ടു കൊടുത്ത വാച്ച് അന്ന് ആദ്യായിട്ടാ അവൻ ക്ലാസ്സിൽ കെട്ടിക്കൊണ്ടു വന്നത്.  എല്ലാവർക്കും അവനോട് അസൂയ തോന്നി.  ഉച്ചക്ക് ലഞ്ച് കഴിച്ച് അവൻ കൈ കഴുകാൻ പോകുമ്പോൾ വാച്ച് അഴിച്ച് അവന്റെ അലുമിനിയം പെട്ടിയിൽ വെക്കുന്നത് യാദൃച്ചികമായാണ് ഞാൻ കണ്ടത്. ക്ലാസ്സിൽ അവനു മാത്രേ പെട്ടി ഉണ്ടായിരുന്നുള്ളൂ. മറ്റുള്ളവരൊക്ക ടിഫിൻ കഴിക്കുന്ന തിരക്കിലാ. എന്റെ അച്ഛൻ ഇത് പോലൊരു വാച്ച് എനിക്ക് ഈ ജന്മത്തിൽ വാങ്ങിത്തരാൻ പോണില്ലാ.  ഇത്ര പൈസ അച്ഛന് ഒരു വർഷം മുഴുവനും കൂലിപ്പണി ചെയ്താലും കിട്ടാൻ പോണില്ലാ.

എല്ലാം വളരെ പെട്ടെന്നായിരുന്നു. വാച്ച് എന്റെ കയ്യിൽ.  അടിവസ്ത്രത്തിനുള്ളിൽ തിരുകി വെച്ചു.  ഹൃദയം വളരെ ശബ്ദത്തോടെയാണ് ഇടിക്കുന്നത്.  വിയർക്കുന്നുമുണ്ട്.  വേണ്ടായിരുന്നു.  ഈ ടെൻഷൻ മരണം വരെ ഉണ്ടാകുമോ?  ഹേയ്... അങ്ങനെയൊക്കെ നോക്കിയാൽ നമ്മുടെ ആഗ്രഹങ്ങൾ നടക്കണ്ടേ? 

കൃഷ്ണകുമാർ തിരികെ വന്നതും ആദ്യം പെട്ടി തുറന്നു.  വാച്ചില്ലാ. 

കൃഷ്ണകുമാറിന്റെ കണ്ണ് നിറഞ്ഞൊഴുകി.  ഒന്നും മിണ്ടിയില്ലാ പാവം.  

സാരല്ല്യാ.  അവന്റെ അച്ഛൻ ഇപ്പോഴും ദുബായിലാണല്ലോ.  അമ്മ ടീച്ചറും.  അടുത്ത പ്രാവശ്യം വീണ്ടും കൊണ്ടുവരാല്ലോ. 

എന്റെ അച്ഛൻ കൂലിപ്പണി. അമ്മ ഡോക്ടറുടെ വീട്ടിൽ അടിച്ചുതളി. ഫീസ് കൊടുക്കുന്നത് തന്നെ അവസാന ദിവസമായിരിക്കും. 

ഉച്ചക്ക് ഗീത ടീച്ചർ ഹാജർ എടുക്കാൻ വന്നതും കൃഷ്ണകുമാർ കരഞ്ഞുകൊണ്ട് കാര്യം അവതരിപ്പിച്ചു. 

ഗീത ടീച്ചർ ചൂടായില്ലാ. ഒച്ച വെച്ചില്ലാ.  കൃഷ്ണകുമാറിന്റെ കൈപിടിച്ചു സമാധാനിപ്പിച്ചു. 

എഴുന്നേറ്റു നിന്ന് എല്ലാവരോടുമായി പറഞ്ഞു.  

കുട്ടികളേ,  ഇവന്റെ വാച്ച് ആരോ എടുത്തിട്ടുണ്ട്.  അത് ആരായാലും അവന് തിരിച്ചു കൊടുക്കണം.  ഈ ശീലം നല്ലതല്ലാ പിള്ളേരേ .  

ക്ലാസ്സിൽ മൂകത. ഉച്ചക്ക് ആദ്യത്തെ പിരീഡ് ഗീത ടീച്ചർടെ തന്നെയാണ്.  എനിക്ക് വാച്ച് തിരിച്ചേൽപ്പിക്കണമെന്നുണ്ട്.  പക്ഷെ എങ്ങനെ?  എല്ലാവരും എന്നെ മരണം വരെ *വാച്ചുകള്ളൻ* എന്ന് വിളിക്കില്ലേ?  

ടീച്ചർ എല്ലാവരോടും എഴുന്നേറ്റു നിൽക്കാൻ പറഞ്ഞു.  

എല്ലാവരോടും കണ്ണടക്കാൻ പറഞ്ഞു. 

ഒരു കാരണവശാലും കണ്ണ് തുറക്കരുത് എന്ന് നിർബന്ധമായി പറഞ്ഞു. 

ആ വാച്ച് കയ്യിലുള്ള ആൾ അതെടുത്ത് പോക്കറ്റിൽ വെക്കണം.  ഞാൻ ഓരോ പോക്കറ്റും പരിശോധിക്കും.  ആരുടെ പോക്കറ്റിൽ നിന്നാണ് കിട്ടിയത് എന്ന് ആരും കാണുകയുമില്ലാ ഞാൻ ആരോടും ഒരിക്കലും അത് പറയുകയും ഇല്ലാ. 

ഹാവൂ.  മനസ്സിന്റെ ഭാരം പൂജ്യം ആയ പോലെ.  ഉറക്കെ കരയാൻ തോന്നി.  ഗീത ടീച്ചറുടെ കാല് തൊട്ടു മാപ്പു പറയാൻ തോന്നി.  കൃഷ്ണകുമാർ എന്തായാലും അറിയരുത്.  

എല്ലാം ടീച്ചർ പറഞ്ഞ പോലെ.  എല്ലാവരും കണ്ണടച്ചു എന്ന് ഞാൻ ഇടക്കണ്ണിട്ട് ഉറപ്പു വരുത്തി.  പെട്ടെന്ന് വാച്ച് എടുത്ത് പോക്കറ്റിൽ ഇട്ടു. 

ടീച്ചർ എന്റെ പോക്കറ്റിൽ കയ്യിട്ടപ്പോൾ തല കറങ്ങുന്നപോലെ തോന്നി.  ഡെസ്കിൽ പിടിച്ചതു  കൊണ്ട് താഴെ വീണില്ലാ. എന്നാലും ടീച്ചർ മാത്രമല്ലേ അറിയൂ.  വലിയ ആശ്വാസം തോന്നി.  100 ഗ്രാം തൂക്കമുള്ള വാച്ച് പോക്കറ്റിൽ നിന്ന് പോയപ്പോൾ ശരീരത്തിന് 100 കിലോ ഭാരം കുറഞ്ഞപോലെ. ഇനി ജീവിതത്തിൽ ഒരിക്കലും ഇപ്പണിക്ക് പോവില്ലാ.  ഗീത ടീച്ചറാണേ  സത്യം. 

എല്ലാവരുടെയും കണ്ണ് അടച്ചു തന്നെ പിടിക്കാൻ ടീച്ചർ ഇടക്കിടയ്ക്ക്  ഓർമിപ്പിച്ചോണ്ടിരുന്നു.  എനിക്ക് ശേഷവും 10 കുട്ടികൾ ഉണ്ട്. വാച്ച് എന്റെ പോക്കറ്റിൽ നിന്നും കിട്ടിയ ശേഷം ടീച്ചർ കണ്ണ് തുറക്കാൻ പറഞ്ഞാൽ എല്ലാം തുലയും. എല്ലാർക്കും പിടികിട്ടും.  ഭാഗ്യം.  ടീച്ചർ അവസാനത്തെ കുട്ടിയുടെയും പോക്കറ്റ് പരിശോധിച്ച ശേഷമാണ് തിരിച്ചു പോയത്. 

വാച്ച് കിട്ടിയ സന്തോഷവാർത്ത ടീച്ചർ അറിയിച്ചു. എല്ലാവരും കണ്ണ് തുറന്നോളാൻ പറഞ്ഞു.  ടീച്ചർ തന്നെ അത് കൃഷ്ണകുമാറിന്റെ കയ്യിൽ കെട്ടി കൊടുത്തു. 

കൂട്ടത്തിൽ എല്ലാവർക്കുമായി ഒരു ഉപദേശവും.  മറ്റുള്ളവരെ പ്രലോഭിപ്പിക്കുന്ന ഒന്നും നിങ്ങൾ ക്ലാസ്സിൽ കൊണ്ടു വരരുത്. 

അടുത്ത ദിവസം കൃഷ്ണകുമാറിന്റെ കയ്യിൽ വാച്ചും ഇല്ലായിരുന്നു.... അവന് മാത്രം ഉണ്ടായിരുന്ന അലുമിനിയം പെട്ടിയും ഇല്ലായിരുന്നു.... 

പിന്നെ ഗീതടീച്ചറെ കാണുമ്പോഴൊക്കെ എനിക്ക് വല്ലാത്ത ഒരു ചമ്മലായിരുന്നു. 

ഇന്നും.  ഇപ്പോഴും. ഈ തുണിക്കടയിൽ ടീച്ചറുടെ മുന്നിൽ നിൽക്കുമ്പോഴും അതേ ചമ്മൽ.  അതുകൊണ്ടാ ആദ്യം ഒന്ന് മടിച്ചു നിന്നത്. 

ടീച്ചറുടെ ഓർമ്മ ഒന്നും കൂടെ ടെസ്റ്റ്‌ ചെയ്ത് നോക്കട്ടെ. 

ടീച്ചർ,  അന്ന് വാച്ച് മോഷ്ടിച്ച കുട്ടിയെ ടീച്ചർ ഓർക്കുന്നില്ലേ? 

അതെങ്ങെനെയാടോ ഞാൻ ഓർക്കണേ.... പോക്കറ്റ് പരിശോധിക്കുമ്പോൾ ഞാനും കണ്ണടച്ചിട്ടാ പരിശോധിച്ചേ. ഹ..ഹ.. ഹ... 

ഞാൻ സ്ഥലകാലബോധം മറന്നു. ടീച്ചറെ കെട്ടിപ്പിടിച്ചു.  കണ്ണുനീര് എത്ര നിയന്ത്രിച്ചിട്ടും നിൽക്കുന്നില്ലാ. ഇങ്ങനെയും ചിലർ?  ദൈവം നേരിട്ട് മുന്നിൽ നിൽക്കുന്ന അനുഭവം. 

ടീച്ചറേ .... ഒരു വലിയ കുറ്റം ചെയ്തിട്ടും മോഷ്ട്ടാവിന്റെ മാന്യത ഒട്ടും നഷ്ടപ്പെടുത്താതെ തന്നെ പ്രശ്നം പരിഹരിച്ചില്ലേ?  മാത്രമല്ലാ,  കൃഷ്ണകുമാറിനും വല്ല്യ ഒരു പാഠമല്ലേ ടീച്ചർ പറഞ്ഞു കൊടുത്തത്?   വാച്ച് മാത്രമല്ലാ പെട്ടിയും ഉപേക്ഷിച്ചില്ലേ അവൻ? 

ടീച്ചറാണ് എന്റെ ജീവിതത്തിലെ റോൾ മോഡൽ.  

ഇന്ന് മുതൽ കൂടുതൽ കൂടുതൽ വലിയ റോൾ മോഡൽ... പെർഫെക്ട് റോൾ മോഡൽ... 

കാല് തൊട്ട് വന്ദിച്ചപ്പോൾ തലയിൽ കൈ വെച്ച് അനുഗ്രഹിച്ചു. 

പോകാൻ നേരമെങ്കിലും ആ വാച്ച്കള്ളൻ ഞാനാണ് ടീച്ചർ എന്ന് പറയണമെന്നുണ്ടായിരുന്നു.  പറഞ്ഞില്ലാ.  ടീച്ചർ വിഷമിക്കും.  അത് സംഭവിക്കരുത്. 

ഇന്ന് വിദ്യാഭ്യാസവും സൗകര്യങ്ങളും അവസരങ്ങളും ഉപദേശങ്ങളും ഉപദേശികളും ആവശ്യത്തിനധികം ഉള്ള ഈ ലോകത്ത് ഗീത ടീച്ചറെ പോലെയുള്ള റോൾ മോഡലുകൾ വളരെ ദുർലഭം.  

ശിക്ഷ ഒരു കുറ്റത്തിനും ശാശ്വത പരിഹാരമല്ലാ. ആയിരുന്നെങ്കിൽ ലോകം എന്നേ നന്നായേനെ. വാക്ക് കൊണ്ടു മാത്രമുള്ള ഉപദേശങ്ങൾ കാതിൽ തട്ടി തെറിച്ചു പോകുന്നതായാണ് കാണാറ്.  ഹൃദയത്തിലേക്ക് ഇറങ്ങി ചെല്ലുന്നില്ലാ.  

എന്നാൽ ഗീത ടീച്ചറോ?  ഈ ഒരു സംഭവത്തിലൂടെ ഒരു തലമുറയെ നേർവഴിക്ക് നയിച്ചു. നിലനിൽക്കുന്ന രൂപാന്തരണം. 

നമുക്കും ഒന്ന് ശ്രമിച്ചുകൂടെ?

Wednesday, 9 October 2019


Educational Implications of Socialism

Socialism

The word socialism was first used during the early years of the 19th century but many philosophers and reformers in the past expressed this resentment against inequalities in society and proposed the concept of an egalitarian society. But no pragmatic programs were put forwarded by them during this period. The French revolution of 1789 with its promise of equality provided a new impetus to socialist ideas. It was during the beginning of industrial revolution that the socialist ideas began to emerge as distinct and powerful concept. It was during the early decade of the 19th century the powerful socialist ideas developed different parts of France. St.Simon, Charles Furrier, Robert Owen, Louis Blanc and others proposed their ideas of socialism and Marx and Engels put forwarded their theory of Socialism and communism during the later half of the 19th century.
                Most of the systems were Utopian which were not supported by powerful movement and strong theoretical background. But Marx and Engels attacked the Utopian ideas through their works and uphold the course of scientific socialism. Through the theory and class struggle and dialetic materialism, they believed that socialism is a historic necessity. They not only provided the theoretical back ground for socialism and communism but actively involved in the formation of working class organization in the different part of Europe.
                Socialism is a political economical theory of social organization which advocates that the means of production, distribution and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
                In some respects it differs from communism. In fact the goal of the both is the same, ie the establishment of classless society, but there is a difference in them regarding the means of realizing the goal. Communism wants to establish a socialistic society through force or revolution. It does not accept the dialectism and materialism of communism. It believes in liberalism and idealism.
                Like communism, socialism is also against capitalism. But instead of snatching the capital from the capitalists it wants to persuade them intelligently to give up the same in democratic manner in favour of the general people. It stands for a mixed economy. It wants that the means of production  should be equitably distributed amongst all. It does not want that a major portion of the national income should go in the hands of a few. It wants that the state should control the big industries but at the same time private enterprises, too, should be allowed to exist. In the same way it does not want to abolish the rights of private property, but it wants to reorganize and delimit.
                The socialism believes in the power of ballets in place of bullets. It strives to win freedom for the workers through the majority vote in their favours. Socialism wants to establish a welfare state in order that each one may get equal opportunity for development. It stands for individual liberty. It does not want to impose any measure which may be hindrance in the individual freedom. In this respect it believes in democratic methods. It recognizes the importance of manual labour and wants to improve the conditions of labourers both in rural and urban areas. It does not stands for the rules of the working class, but wants the government elected through the popular votes.
Main features of Socialism:
1.       Socialism aims at establishing a classless society
2.       Socialism aims at social justice, equality and the complete supremacy of the state
3.       Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system
4.       It aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of the society
5.       It has little faith in the religious ideas and faith
6.       Socialism ignores spiritual values
Indian concept of Socialism:
                Gandhiji, Jawaharlal Nehru, Jaiprakash Narayan, are the greatest supporters of socialism. Gandhiji saw socialism as a way of life. He called it “sarvodaya samaj” in which the gratest goal of all is the end.
The main features of Indian Socialism:
1.       It is based on equality between man and man
2.       Economic system must be based on human outlook
3.       Socialism does not sacrifice man for man
4.       It believes in building a classless and castles society
5.       It stresses equality, freedom and social justice
6.       It believes in mixed economy, ie public ownership as well as private ownership
7.       It aims at providing special facilities to the weaker section of society
8.       It believes in free expression of values
9.       It is based on democratic ideas
10.   It believes in “non-violence” means to achieve its goals
11.   It stresses in decentralization in administration and planning
Education and Socialism:
                Socialism is a socio economic political doctrine which arose as a revolt against the capitalism, in Europe in the 19th century. Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia and Mao in china were the chief architects of socialism. Socialism aims in establishing a classless society based on the total supremacy of the state and total submission of the individual to the state.
Prominent types of Socialism are,
·         Democratic socialism
·         Christian Socialism
·         Fabian socialism
·         Ghandian Socialism
·         Guild Socialism
·         Marxist Leninist Socialism
·         Scientific Socialism
Socialism and aims of Education:
1.       Development of democratic out look
2.       Development of socialist values
3.       Development of secular values
4.       Providing equality of opportunity to all for their all round development and welfare
5.       Rapid expansion of educational facilities to all areas
6.       Developing values like ‘dharma’, dignity of labour, non violence, unselfishness and selfless service etc.
Socialism and curriculum and methods of teaching:
1.       Topics like democracy, duties of citizens, equality, freedom, rights, secularism, socialism, social reform movements, non-violence etc. should be taught
2.       Group activities like debates, discussion, social service camps, social surveys,shramadhan etc. to be organized
3.       Inclusion of socially useful productive work as an essential component of the social curriculum to be the key note of the curriculum
4.       Emphasize should be laid on polytechnic education vocational and professional courses
5.       Introduction of information technology. Its effective use would enable students to do well in the in the age of modernization
6.       Emphasize should be given to group method like teaching, seminars, projects etc.
7.       Self discovery method should be encouraged.
Socialization and equalization of educational opportunities:
1.       Giving free education to economically and socially weaker students
2.       Free text books and uniforms to weaker sections
3.       Award of scholarships
4.       Grant of loans
5.       Admission facilities and special quotas for weaker sections, SC and ST
6.       Hostel facilities
7.       Day study centers
8.       Earn and learn facilities
9.       Special facilities for girls
10.   Transport facilities
11.   Special stress on the education of the backward areas, hill areas, slum areas etc
12.   Running of government schools and local schools
13.   Common and neighbor hood school system at various places

Tuesday, 8 October 2019

Educational Implications of Democracy

Democracy 

Democracy in its  purest or most ideal form would be a society in which all adult citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy is usually considered as “the government of the people, by the people and for the people”
                According to Henderson, “democracy is based on two assumptions: the infinite value and worth of human personality and belief that men are capable of managing their own affairs in such a way as to promote the welfare of all and that, therefore, they should have the freedom to do so”
                The term democracy come from the Greek word “demokratia” meaning “rule of the people”  which was coined from “demos” meaning “people” and “kratos” meaning “power”. The word democracy on the one hand, points towards the type of the government and on the other way a way of life.
                In a democratic government there are provided free opportunities for the self expression to an individual. Dewey is of the opinion that in democracy besides the form of the government something else is involved. This is mainly the way of life for good living which is based on experience. Bode considers democracy as “a way of life” and by way of life he means “a determining influence in every major area of life”
                From the political point of view, democracy means “the government of the people, by the people and for the people”. In democracy the government is formed by the majority but the rights of the minority are not ignored.
                In the economic sphere democracy means that each individual should be given freedom to earn his own living through his own efforts.
                Democracy is taken in the social sense, when there are no impediments in the progress of any race, class or religion. The meaning of this is that for all the people there should be equal opportunities so that they may become good citizens.
PRE-CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY:-
                Democracy believes in giving independence to the people. But if the people are not educated and are not discipline for social good then this independence would be very costly and would take the form of anarchy. For the success of democracy some pre conditions are very necessary. They are,
1.       There should be economic betterment of the people. Democracy cannot be established on the hungry stomachs of the people.
2.       The second pre condition is the formation of an educated electorate. Democracy can function properly when the people are educated and they are conscious of their rights and duties.
EDUCATION FOR DEMOCRACY:-
For the success of democracy it is essential that each individual owns his responsibilities consciously and this will be possible only when the individuals power of understanding is high and he is of  good character. It is the duty of the society that it should prepare the individual from intellectual moral and physical point of view to discharge hi duties of citizenship. So that the society may remain happy and rich. The main features of education are usually sited as two fold. Firstly, it is to transmit the social and cultural heritage to the new generation. (example through schools). The second function of education is to create among the students a feeling of adjustment to the environment. The school should develop all the qualities among the children which are desirable in a good citizen. This qualities includes,
1.       Self realization
2.       Human relationship
3.       Economic efficiency
4.       Civic responsibility
True education for democracy should help the people to appreciate the urgent necessity of acquiring knowledge to discriminate between facts and prejudices, to weigh and judge efficiencies, to arrive at conclusions.
THE RESPONSIBILITY OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL AGENCIES FOR DEMOCRATIC EDUCATION:-
                A person learns the first principle of democratic life from his or her home. The individual learns the best methods for his socialization by spending a wholesome life in his family and by gaining experiences from the social life of other persons.
                We know that the school is a formal agency of education. In the school, proper arrangement can be made for the education for democracy. The people through the personal efforts and through group activities can learn the responsibilities of a future citizen. The state should ensure that there available opportunities for universal free primary education.
                The informal agencies are also helpful in developing desirable public consciousness. Education does not end with school education but it is a continous process. The informal agencies take the responsibility of education about the rights and duties to the individual even after their formal schooling. Democracy will become successful only, if the citizens are intellectually advanced and educated. In democracy, the opinion of the people influences government policies.
EDUCATION FOR DEMOCRACY AS IN THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION:
                The preamble of Indian constitution clearly mentions that the democratic form of government is to be the pattern of the government in India. Justice, liberty,  equality and fraternity are given as the fundamental rights to all the citizen of the country. In general our education should be based on thes principles. It should inculcate the ideals of democratic socialism. In India, citizens are given equal status, rights, opportunities and facilities. Education for every child is a constitutional obligation. To fulfill these obligation all types of school must be established and in all these schools admissions must be made freely and justly.
                In India, through education, the ideals of democracy can place before people. Literacy rate in India is very low and this is creating a great danger to the democracy. This shows the great need for the improvement of our educational system. It should be improved from within. In 1935, Mahatma Gandhi said, “I hold that the democracy can not be evolved by forcible methods. The spirits of democracy cannot be imposed from without. It has to come within.”
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMOCRACY AND AIMS OF EDUCATION:
                Harmonious development of the individuality of the citizen is the main aim of education in all democratic countries. In the democracy, there must develop a capacity to understand the social, economic and political problems in a practical and efficient way. He must think in a creative way. The education should give importance to both individual and social development.
                Education should develop socialism both in thought and action of the people. According to the secondary education commission (1952-53), “three aims fit in democracy, 1)the framing of the character to fit the students to participate creatively as the citizens in the democratic social order; 2)the improvement of their practical and vocational efficiency so that they may play their part in building up the economic prosperity of their country; and 3)the development of literacy , artistic and cultural interest which are necessary for self expression and for the full development of the human personality, without which a lively national culture cannot come into being”
CURRICULUM  AND DEMOCRACY:
                In order to achieve democratic ideals the curriculum should be well planned. Role of curriculum in creating democratic ideals are given below.
1.       Different activities like play, school education, co curricular activities, etc should include in curriculum
2.       There should be ample scope for individual freedom and it should be flexible in nature
3.       While selecting a course intelligence, capabilities and necessities of individual must be considered
4.       Curriculum should give importance to local needs
5.       Curriculum should be social oriented
6.       Importance should be given to efficient utilization of the leisure time
7.       Vocational needs should also be considered while the framing of the curriculum
ROLE OF SCHOOL IN DEMOCRACY:-
Every school is established by the society for the welfare of the society. In democracy, the school should propagate democratic ideals. Some important roles of schools are given below,
1.       The school should make the students capable of living in democracy
2.       Steps should be adopted to develop secularism and religious neutrality
3.       Teachers should have freedom to select their own methods and text books
4.       Democratic feeling should be given to the teachers
5.       Create desirable environment for developing friendship among teachers, principals and inspectioners
6.       Co-operation, sympathy, love, etc should be given special emphasis
TEACHER AND DEMOCRACY:
                Every democratic society, the teachers should be given high status to bring desirable change in the society and this will lead towards the progress of the society. The teacher should have adequate training and must have competency or developing the feelings of democracy among the children. He should be able to understand the potentialities of every child. He should have ability to provide education for good citizenship and must be a man of high character.
TEACHING METHODS AND DEMOCRACY:
The method of teaching can influence in developing democratic set up in every nation. The teaching methods must follow the below given facts.
1.       The methods of teaching must be flexible
2.       The teaching methods must be based dynamisms and progressivism
3.       The teaching methods must be activity centered
4.       There must be individual freedom (use methods like Dalton plan, project method, Montessory)
5.       The methods should emphasize the intellectual and social development of the child
Self discipline also has importance in democracy. It should be emphasized in democracy. For this children should be given opportunity for self government. It is essential to remember that, democracy weather in the school or society can be only successful when its members have proper approach towards it. We can conclude by quoting the words of Alexander Meikeljohn, who says, “the art of democracy is the art of thinking independently together”

Saturday, 31 August 2019

New trends and perspectives in curriculum design and in curriculum construction –constructivist-cultural studies-diversified curriculum

New trends and perspectives in curriculum design and in curriculum construction –constructivist-cultural studies-diversified curriculum.
Curriculum-Meaning, Concept and Definitions
Etymologically the term curriculum was derived from the Greek word ‘Currere’ which means a race course or a runway on which one runs to reach a goal. In the past the term curriculum signified a course of studies followed by a pupil in a teaching institution. Today it means in general terms, the contract between Society, the state and educational professionals with regard to the educational activities that learners should undergo during a certain phase of their lives to learn something desirable.
Cunningham - “Curriculum is a tool in the hands of an artist (teacher) to mould his material (pupils) according to his ideas (aim and objectives) in his studio (school).”
Morroe - “ Curriculum includes all those activities which are utilized by the school to attain the aims of education.”
Modern Concept
Modern Education is the combination of two dynamic processes. The one is the process of individual development and the other is the process of socialization; which is commonly known as adjustment with the social environment.
Modern Trends in Curriculum Design
The classroom is continually changing, from the subject matter that is covered, to the way it is taught. Some of these changes stem from easily-abandoned fades, while others prove to be ineffective. But lately several key shifts have been shaping the future of the classroom that have the potential to impact education for years to come. Educators who to incorporate these trends into their lessons must determine how to overcome any obstacles to their implementation and ensure the new measures are beneficial to their students. For educators who want to change their approach to building curriculum, these are the trends worth exploring:
Real Skills. Gone are the days of students asking, “When will I ever use this in real life?” during a trigonometry lesson. In addition to traditional subjects, there has been excitement surrounding skills that students can use in the real world. In the 21st century, skills like collaboration, critical thinking, and communication are valued in virtually all aspects of daily life.
These skills will prepare students for life beyond the classroom and can be beneficial to personal, academic, and professional situations. They are also applicable in some way in all academic disciplines, and so will help students regardless of what they choose to focus on with their studies. Teaching these skills will not only help students academically, but they will also help shape their growth as independent individuals in the modern world. Teachers across the nation will have different ideas of what skills are most important and how to teach them to their students. As students advance into higher grades and learn from multiple educators, there can be inconsistencies with instruction that hinder or confuse students. However this lack of standard does not lead to more variety, which could actually enrich students’ educational experience and introduce them to new skills and perspectives in the classroom.
Personalized Curriculums. Traditionally, students get more freedom to choose what they learn as they get older, starting with electives in middle and high school and specializing in a major when they get to college. However, research dating back to the 1990s shows that interest-based learning is closely tied to student success. Educators are beginning to build curriculum around students’ interests at younger ages, in the hopes of keeping them engaged and motivated at school.
Interest-based learning is hardly a new idea, but integrating it into the curriculum wasn’t thought to be possible until new learning technologies became more widespread. Classroom technology makes it easier for teachers to create individualized lessons for their students based on their passions.
While some schools may already focus on individualized learning, others still have to figure out how to integrate personalized curriculums on a larger scale. Working with new technology in the classroom is a challenge in and of itself. Additionally, instructors may struggle to create or respond to personalized lessons for each and every one of their students, especially in the case of large class sizes. However, this can still benefit all students by keeping them passionate and interested about what they learn at school.
Digital Integration. As with many other aspects of modern life, teachers have been incorporating more and more technology into the classroom. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of websites, apps, programs, and devices dedicated to helping teachers, parents, and students of all ages with school. And the possibilities are endless — from e-textbooks to online high school degree programs, there is no shortage of useful tools available to enhance every part of the educational experience.
The open-source nature of the internet encourages users to do more than consume these free resources. Interaction with and contribution to the collective knowledge available not only to students, but to all users, can be a powerful experience for students. Instructors can encourage students to take an active role in both their own education and the education of others.
However, there are several challenges that educators and administrators may face when attempting to integrate new technology into their classroom. Perhaps one of the biggest challenges is lack of funds. Purchasing new technology for classroom use gets expensive, and even new digital software can be costly. Some districts may simply be unable to afford new technology and there is an increasingly large technological divide between low-income and wealthy schools. Though much of the Internet is free to use as long as students have a device to access it, educators will have to devise a specific plan to purchase and integrate new technology within budget constraints.
Inequality of implementation is another large challenge to overcome. Different schools and teachers have different resources available to them, leading to unique educational experiences for each student. These differences lead to some students enjoying a much higher quality of education than others, and while creating systemic change across classrooms would ensure an equal and fair education for all, it is a difficult goal to achieve. Educators can only control their own lessons and should integrate new methods as they see fit.
These trends may sound like undeniable solutions to improve the quality of education, but they mark a truly radical shift in how teachers create curriculum for their students. Though integrating new trends may be difficult, educators should still embrace any changes they see value in. Adhering to old standards or methods of curriculum building simply because it’s easier will affect students for generations to come. Educators must do their best to help their students learn and grow, and these new curriculum trends may be an effective way to do so(Blogger,).
Curriculum Construction
One of the most important activities of the university is the development of curriculum or course outlines in consonance with the national and international demands and realities. For the last few decades, scholars have been raising doubts and questions about the validity of heavy reliance on a subject-centered approach to curriculum development that is dominated by textbook contents. Furthermore, the convergence of academic disciplines in the form of broad field and problem-orientation to knowledge incorporating a variety of theoretical perspectives requires innovative procedures for the development of curriculum. For this purpose, it is imperative that university teachers are aware of modern trends in the development of curriculum.
The key component of any curriculum is its instructional objectives or learning outcomes. To determine the extent to which these objectives or outcomes have been achieved, there is a need to assess students’ learning. Students’ assessment is a very complex task. Teachers often do not have the necessary background to meet its requirements appropriately. Hence, it is also necessary that teachers are exposed to a variety of tools to measure students learning (“MODERN TRENDS IN CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION | remya radhakrishnan,”).
Principles of Curriculum Construction
The content of curriculum is determined on the basis of some academic principles which are stated below:
(1) Aims of education and objectivity: Life is complex. A curriculum should reflect the complexities of life. In other words, in farming the curriculum one should take into consideration the aims and objectives of education.
(2) Child-centric principle: The curriculum should be framed according to the actual needs, interests and capacities of the child. That means a curriculum must be child-centric as modern education is child-centered.
(3) Principles of civic and social needs: Man is a social being. He lives in the society. The child develops in the society. Modern education aims at both developments of the individuality of the child as well as the development of the society.
(4) Principle of conservation: Man has conserved experiences very carefully for better adaptability. Education is regarded as a means of deserving the cultural heritage of humanity. The school serves two-fold functions in this regard- preservation of the past experiences and transmission of experiences.
(5) Principles of creativeness: Education not only conserves that past experiences of humanity but also helps an individual to develop his innate potentialities.
(6) Principle of forward-looking: The aim of life-centered education is not limited to the present life-situations in the family and society. Hence, education must prepare the child of shouldering future responsibilities. So in farming the curriculum we must take into consideration the future needs of the child as well as the needs of the society.
(7) Principle of preparation for living: The children should know the various activities of the environment around them and how these activities are enabling people to meet their basic needs of food, shelter, clothing, recreation, health and education.
(8) Principle of integration and correlation: Subjects should be arranged logically and psychologically in accordance with the child’s developing interests.
(9) Principle of learning ability: Every item should be learnt. An item should not only be learnable, it should also have utility.
(10) Principle of individual difference: The curriculum should be framed in such a way that every individual can have opportunity for self-expression and development. The curriculum should be based on the psychology of individual difference, which can meet the complexities of modern democratic society.
(11) Principle of social relevancy and utility: Subjects should not be determined on the basis of their disciplinary value but on the basis of their intrinsic value, social relevancy and utility.
(12) Principle for utilization of leisure: Variety of subjects such as games and sports, fine arts, subjects of aesthetic value are to be introduced in the school programme to utilize leisure.
(13) Principle of variety and flexibility: The curriculum should include such activities and experiences, which may facilitate his normal development. The curriculum for girls should naturally be different from that of boys; boys and girls have different needs and attitudes.
(14) Principle of time: Relative significance and importance of each subject in the curriculum has to be judged and determined in the light of the time available in the timetable, which is regarded as the mirror of the school programme.

Modern trends in curriculum construction
Digital Diversity: Present age is an age of ICT technology has touched to al the wakes of human life.  Technology has made various tasks easy, convenient and of quality. To survive in the concern filed it is necessary for everyone to have a knowledge and skill of technology. Education makes man enable to contribute, it strengthens the capabilities. For the effective  transaction of curriculum ICT is must.
Web 2.0 applications must be used for the effective teaching learning process. Curriculum makers should give clear guidelines regarding this. E.g.  teacher tube is very useful source for the educational resources. Khan academy.org also provides good videos, lectures and many more which makes learning meaningful, easy and effective.  Curricki merlot, K2-12 Hippocamus all these provides educational resources which students can use, edit reconstruct and so on. All these things should be interlined with every curriculum.
Need based Curriculums: Researches in all the fields resulted in to specialization. Need based curriculum is the foremost need of the present education system. Many universities are developing need based short term programs for this purpose.
E.g. Mumbai University has introduced courses like – certificate course in Power Point, certificate course in tally, certificate course in marketing, YCMOU- introduced –English communication skills program for Mumbai Dabawala.
Modular Curriculum with credit base system: Modular curriculum gives real freedom of learning .especially in the open learning  system his approach has been adopted at first but now majority of traditional universities also  accepting his system; this is a real emerging trend in the modern curriculum.
Online coerces: Need based and choice based curriculums are available online also. E.g. course era .com  has introduced many useful need based courses for free of cost. Government also takes  initiative for this e.g. Right to Information certificate curse has been introduced by  Government of India to the Indian people. This course is free and online.
21st century skills: All the curriculums of various courses should focus on 21st century skills. Skills like  collaboration, critical thinking, effective communication, multitasking stress management,  empathy are must for all the personals.
International Understanding: Globalization has made converted the world in to global village. We should consider world as a one family and for this international understanding must be inculcate through  curriculum.

Constructivism: Constructivist approach believes that learner should be given freedom to construct his/her knowledge. Spoon feeding must be avoided. If a learner is fully active in construction of knowledge then learning process will be highly effective. In all the curriculums constructivist strategies must be given important place.

Cultural studies

Cultural studies is an interdisciplinary field of studies, which means that it draws from many different subject areas, including sociology, anthropology, political science, and history. Although it is sometimes misunderstood as being the study of popular culture, cultural studies is, in fact, the study of the ways in which culture is constructed and organized and the ways in which it evolves and changes over time. Modern curriculum needs study of culture so as to attain the benefits of culture and to develop culture (“Cultural studies | interdisciplinary field | Britannica.com,” ).

Diversified Curriculum

Our world is changing — economically, socially, and politically. We have reached a stage in India where our students have started viewing the world differently and their place in it as thinkers, decision makers and important stakeholders. To meet the challenges ahead, we’ll need help from a broad range of non-technological innovators, including economists, political scientists, psychologists and artists. 
As the contemporary world becomes more complex, we need an education setup that caters to this diversity not only in terms of challenges but also in the ways to address them. It is time, therefore, that we accepted and embraced the crucial contribution
that an education provides in building a new innovation agenda in the country. The essential interdisciplinary character of education in liberal arts provides students the necessary exposure to the multifaceted character of human nature. The ongoing digital revolution will make this exploration between technology and education obvious for the next generation.
Now thinking will be more important than knowing. We need to revolutionize education to encourage creativity and need to teach our boys and girls to play, take a chance and create, not by teaching our students. We will hinder their capacity to innovate (“The need for a diversified curriculum,” 2017).



Reference
  • Blogger, I. G. (n.d.). Current Curriculum Trends Worth Exploring. Retrieved August 31, 2019, from ASCD Inservice website: http://inservice.ascd.org/current-curriculum-trends-worth-exploring/
  • Cultural studies | interdisciplinary field | Britannica.com. (n.d.). Retrieved August 31, 2019, from https://www.britannica.com/topic/cultural-studies
  • MODERN TRENDS IN CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION | remya radhakrishnan. (n.d.). Retrieved August 31, 2019, from https://remyaradhakrishnan.wordpress.com/2014/09/14/modern-trends-in-curriculum-construction/
  • The need for a diversified curriculum. (2017, April 19). Retrieved August 31, 2019, from Deccan Herald website: https://www.deccanherald.com/content/607193/need-diversified-curriculum.html